Creatine is naturally produced in the human body from amino acids L-arginine, glycine, and L-methionine primarily in the kidney and liver and transported in the blood to help supply energy to all cells in the body. Creatine is metabolized into phosphocreatine, an important storage form used by the brain, heart, and skeletal muscles.52-56 In normal healthy individuals, muscle creatine is replenished at a rate of approximately two grams a day.57 Oral ingestion of creatine has been shown to suppress the body’s natural production, an effect that has been shown to be reversed upon ceasing supplementation.57
Creatine exerts various effects upon entering the muscle. It is these effects that elicit improvements in exercise performance and may be responsible for the improvements of muscle function and energy metabolism seen under certain conditions. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the increased exercise performance seen after creatine intake:58
- Optimizing energy metabolism by maintaining higher levels of the body’s energy compound adenosine triphosphate or ATP.59-61
- Increasing myofibrillar mRNA content and protein synthesis, and reducing amino acid oxidation and protein break-down.58,62,63
- Increasing satellite cell and myonuclei number and activity in human skeletal muscle.64
- Preventing tissue damage by stabilizing cellular membranes and maintaining reserves of ATP.58
One particularly interesting study found that the positive effects of creatine on strength and lean tissue in older adults continued after they stopped using creatine; at least for the duration of the study.15 The scientists concluded that “withdrawal from creatine had no effect on the rate of strength, endurance, and loss of lean tissue mass with twelve weeks of reduced-volume training.”
Along with a good diet and supplement regimen, regular exercise can greatly reduce the incidence of developing many health conditions.16 Research has shown exercise is important for our bodies and our minds.17-20 For decades, it has been considered scientific fact that the brains of adult mammals had a fixed number of cells. This idea has been challenged by several studies that showed exercise nearly doubled the number of cells in the area of the brain involved with learning and memory, known as the hippocampus.21 This study was done on mice, but regeneration of the hippocampus has now been shown in adult birds and monkeys. One of the researchers speculated that “intense exercise in a natural environment may be associated with a need for increased navigation skills.”22 The hippocampus is thought to be the control center for the learning processes involved with navigating and understanding our surroundings. Exercise is as essential for our minds as it is for our bodies!
The addition of creatine supplementation to an active lifestyle can provide added benefit to the health of the brain.23-28 One study found that creatine was very effective at reducing damage to brain tissue after injury. The researchers found that ” … administration of creatine ameliorated the extent of cortical damage by as much as 36% in mice and 50% in rats. Protection seems to be related to creatine-induced maintenance of mitochondrial bioenergetics.”29
Creatine monohydrate has become popular with athletes, but it may also be beneficial for people who are nutritionally deficient, have conditions associated with low cellular energy, muscle weakness, and those concerned with the muscular integrity of the heart.28,69-80
Each creatine capsule supplies 500 mg of easily-absorbed creatine monohydrate.
Supplementation with creatine has shown improvement in strength in people afflicted with various neuromuscular diseases. Studies have shown it is twice as effective as ruluzole for ALS (Lou Gehrig’s Disease). Another promising study demonstrated similar results with Huntington’s disease. Science also found that using creatine may support muscular dystrophies by increasing muscle strength and potentially improving functional performance.1
A study of vegetarians and vegans found that supplementing with creatine showed a significant increase in IQ scores. Another study found improved cognitive ability in the elderly.1
The Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database shows creatine may be effective for:2
- Improving athletic performance
- Parkinson’s disease
- Increasing strength and endurance in people with heart failure
- Increasing strength in those with muscular dystrophy and other muscle diseases
- Retarding vision loss in people with gyrate atrophy
- Improving symptoms of those with McArdle’s disease
Other studies have found additional uses for creatine. These include heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
|Serving Size: 2 vegetarian capsules |
Servings Per Container: 60
|Amount Per Serving|
|Creatine monohydrate |
Vitamin C (as ascorbyl palmitate)
|1000 mg |
|Other Ingredients: vegetable cellulose (capsule), stearic acid, silica. |
Dosage and Use:
- Take two capsules twice daily with water or juice, or as recommended by a healthcare practitioner.
Caution: Those with impaired kidney function should avoid creatine supplements.
- If pregnant, nursing, or taking medication, consult your physician before taking this product
- Keep out of reach of children
- Do not exceed recommended dose
1. Wikipedia: Creatine
2. MedlinePlus: Creatine
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58. Pharmacol Rev. 2001 Jun;53(2):161-76.
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63. J Appl Physiol 2001;91: 1041–1047.
64. J Physiol 2006;573: 525–534.
69. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011 Sep;111(9):1965-71.
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71. Amino Acids. 2010 Jan;38(1):31-44.
72. Altern Med Rev. 2007 Sep;12(3):246-58.
73. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jan 24;(1):CD004760.
74. CNS Drugs. 2004;18(14):967-80.
75. Neuromolecular Med. 2008;10(4):275-90.
76. Amino Acids. 2011 May;40(5):1385-96.
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78. J Neurochem. 2004 Feb;88(3):576-82.
79. Pharmazie. 2006 Mar;61(3):218-22.
80. Amino Acids. 2011 May;40(5):1349-62.
* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This Product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
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